Vitiligo, Safed Daag or Leucoderma is a skin disorder with white lesions patches which, consequently, results in ruining of skin’s natural colour. The white patches covered over the skin is the result of the destruction of melanocytes within the skin. The blockage of the colour pigment melanin, melanocyte, as a result of which depigmented macules are formed in the skin. These macules may have different size and shape. Macules can find their space in any part of the body including genitals and mucous membrane of lips. Areas such as inside of the mouth and the hair can also be affected by macules.
Symptoms of Vitiligo
The very visible symptom of vitiligo, safed daag is the loss of natural skin colour. The discolouration of leucoderma is usually seen on sun-exposed areas such as the face, lips, hands, feet and arms. The patches can vary in their sizes large or small and tend to appear as the following patterns mentioned below :
Segmental or focal: Segmental or focal patches have white patches which are smaller in size and appear in one area. The appearance of vitiligo in the focal or segmental pattern is usually seen at one side of the body. It generally progresses slower than generalized vitiligo.
Non-segmental or generalized: Non – segmental or generalized have white patches in a symmetrical shape on both sides of the body. Non-segmental vitiligo is one of the most common patterns found in humans which has a direct effect on pigment cells on any part of the body.
Cause of Vitiligo
Vitiligo does not come with any age, ethnicity or gender. After, immense development in the field of science and technology, vitiligo is still a lifelong condition with no cure. Not only, the disease is explicable, but also, the exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown. It is estimated that vitiligo, safed daag is found due to an autoimmune disorder or a virus. Though, Vitiligo is not contagious.
Signs of Vitiligo
1.) Loss of skin colour
2.) Premature greying and whitening of the hair on your scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard
3.) Depletion of colour in the tissues found inside the mouth and nose (mucous membranes)
4.) Loss and mutation in the colour of the inner layer of the eyeball (retina)
5.) Depigmentation of the skin
If you discover any of the signs present in your skin, you really need to consult your doctor. As discussed earlier, no drug or medication can put an end to the process of vitiligo. Few changes in lifestyle such as protecting your skin from the sun and artificial sources of UV light, avoiding tattoo making and concealing affected skin are some home remedies which can help you with improvement in your skin. Though, there few light therapies which can help in fixing some skin tone.
Combining psoralen and light therapy: This treatment contains psoralen which is a plant-derived substance which helps in restoring the natural colour of the skin with light therapy (photochemotherapy). Post consumption of psoralen orally or on direct application to the affected areas of the skin, one is exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA), UVB light. Visible results need repetitive treatments for around three times a week for six to 12 months.
Removing the remaining colour (depigmentation): Depigmentation as the name suggests clearly, the depigmenting agent is applied to unaffected areas of skin which lightens the unaffected area of the skin so that it blends with the discoloured areas. The therapy is done once or twice a day for approximately nine months. Depigmentation has a long-lasting and permanent effect which resists you from getting exposed to the sunlight. It has got some side effects such as redness, swelling, itching, the reason for keeping depigmentation as an option for the treatment