Lifestyle

Breast Cancer in Women: Symptoms, Stages and Causes

Cancer is a disease which happens on the growing of a number of cells without any control. Cancer can be of lungs, throat, skin or breast. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it is more likely to happen in women.

In comparison to females, men have a very small amount of breast tissue which causes the risk of breast cancer. A man’s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is about 1 in 833. There are more than 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in the United States. The chance of any woman dying from breast cancer is around 1 in 38 (2.6%)”, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS).

Some possible symptoms of Cancer are

1.) An area of thickened tissue in the breast or a lump in the breast or an armpit.
2.) Pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle
3.) A lump or swelling under your arm
4.) Redness of the skin of the breast, similar to the surface of an orange
5.) Breast pain
6.) Rash around or on one of the nipples
7.) Discharge from a nipple containing blood
8.) An inverted nipple
9.) Change in the size or shape of the breast
10.) Peeling, flaking, dimpled, inflamed or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple

Stages of Breast Cancer : 

Stage 0: Stage 0 is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the cells are limited to within the ducts and have not captured the surrounding tissues in stage 0.

Stage 1: At  stage 1, the tumor measures up to 2 centimetres (cm) across. It has not affected any lymph nodes. There is an invasion of small groups of cancer cells in the lymph nodes.

Stage 2: In stage 2, the tumor is already 2 cm across, which has now started its capturing to nearby nodes, or is 2–5 cm across and has not spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage 3: The tumor is up to 5 cm across, and it has spread to several lymph nodes. The tumor is larger than 5 cm and has spread to a few lymph nodes.

Stage 4: This is the last stage of cancer that has now spread to distant organs, most often the bones, liver, brain, or lungs.

Causes of Breast Cancer

Age: The risk of breast cancer increases with age. Women over 50 are more likely to get breast cancer than younger women.

Race: African-American women are more likely than white women to get breast cancer before menopause.

Dense breasts: If your breasts have more connective tissue than fatty tissue, it can be hard to see tumours on a mammogram.

Family history: If a first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) had breast cancer, you’re two times more likely to get the disease. Having two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer history increases your risk. Risk can also rise if your father or brother was diagnosed with breast cancer.

Genetics: BRCA1 and BRCA2 — are two genes or mutations which are responsible for some cases of breast cancer in families. If you have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, you have a 7 in 10 chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer by age 80. Other gene mutations linked to breast cancer risk include mutations of the PTEN gene, the ATM gene, the TP53 gene, the CHEK2 gene, the CDH1 gene, the STK11 gene, and the PALB2 gene. These genes have a lower risk of breast cancer development rather than BRCA genes. These genes also raise your odds of ovarian cancer and are linked to pancreatic cancer and male breast cancer.

Radiation: You have an increased risk of breast cancer if you had treatment for cancers like Hodgkin’s lymphoma before age 40.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES): DES is a type of drug which is used by Doctors between 1940 and 1971 to prevent miscarriage. If you or your mother was severed, your breast cancer odds are likely to go up.

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